DIY ECG with 1 op-amp

I made surprisingly good ECG from a single op-amp and 5 resistors! An ECG (electrocardiograph, sometimes called EKG) is a graph of the electrical potential your heart produces as it beats. Seven years ago I posted DIY ECG Machine on the Cheap which showed a discernible ECG I obtained using an op-amp, two resistors, and a capacitor outputting to a PC sound card’s microphone input. It didn’t work well, but the fact that it worked at all was impressive! It has been one of the most popular posts of my website ever since, and I get 1-2 emails a month from people trying to recreate these results (some of them are during the last week of a college design course and sound pretty desperate). Sometimes people get good results with that old circuit, but more often than not the output isn’t what people expected. I decided to revisit this project (with more patience and experience under my belt) and see if I could improve it. My goal was not to create the highest quality ECG machine I could, but rather to create the simplest one I could with emphasis on predictable and reproducible results. The finished project is a blend of improved hardware and custom cross-platform open-source software (which runs on Windows, Linux, and MacOS), and an impressively good ECG considering the circuit is so simple and runs on a breadboard! Furthermore, the schematics and custom software are all open-sourced on my github!

my heartbeat recorded while filming the YouTube video shown below

Here’s a video demonstrating how the output is shown in real time with custom Python software. The video is quite long, but you can see the device in action immediately, so even if you only watch the first few seconds you will see this circuit in action with the custom software. In short, the amplifier circuit (described in detail below) outputs to the computer’s microphone and a Python script I wrote analyzes the audio data, performs low-pass filtering, and graphs the output in real time. The result is a live electrocardiograph!

The circuit is simple, but a lot of time and thought and experimentation went into it. I settled on this design because it produced the best and most reliable results, and it has a few nuances which might not be obvious at first. Although I discuss it in detail in the video, here are the highlights:


  • The output goes to the microphone jack of your computer.
  • There’s nothing special about the op-amp I used (LM741). A single unit of an LM324 (or any general purpose op-amp) should work just as well.
  • Resistor values were chosen because I had them on hand. You can probably change them a lot as long as they’re in the same ballpark of the values shown here. Just make sure R1 and R2 are matched, and R3 should be at least 10MOhm.
  • Do not use a bench power supply! “BAT+” and “BAT-” are the leads of a single 9V battery.
  • Note that the leg electrode is ground (same ground as the computer’s microphone ground)
  • R5 and R4 form a traditional voltage divider like you’d expect for an op-amp with a gain of about 50.
    • You’d expect R4 to connect to ground, but since your body is grounded, chest 2 is essentially the same
    • R3 must be extremely high value, but it pulls your body potential near the optimal input voltage for amplification by the op-amp.
    • R1 and R2 split the 9V battery’s voltage in half and center it at ground, creating -4.5V and +4.5V.
  • altogether, your body stays grounded, and the op-amp becomes powered by -4.5V and +4.5V, and your body is conveniently near the middle and ready to have small signals from CHEST1 amplified. Amplification is with respect to CHEST2 (roughly ground), rather than actual ground, so that a lot of noise (with respect to ground) is eliminated.
DIY ECG made from 1 op-amp, 5 resistors, a 9V battery, and 3 penny electrodes

For those of you who would rather see a picture than a schematic, here’s a diagram of how to assemble it graphically. This should be very easy to reproduce. Although breadboards are typically not recommended for small signal amplification projects, there is so much noise already in these signals that it doesn’t really matter much either way. Check out how good the signals look in my video, and consider that I use a breadboard the entire time.


The most comfortable electrodes I used were made for muscle simulators. A friend of mine showed me some muscle stimulator pads he got for a back pain relief device he uses. As soon as I saw those pads, I immediately thought they would be perfect for building an ECG! They’re a little bit expensive, but very comfortable, reusable, last a long time, and produce brilliant results. They also have 3.5 mm (headphone jack) connectors which is perfect for DIY projects. On you can get 16 pads for $11 with free shipping. I decided not to include links, because sometimes the pads and cords are sold separately, and sometimes they have barrel connectors and sometimes they have snap connectors. Just get any adhesive reusable electrodes intended for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that you can find! They should all work fine.


You can make your own electrodes for $0.03! Okay that’s a terrible joke, but it’s true. I made not-awful electrodes by soldering wires to copper pennies, adding strength by super-gluing the wire to the penny, and using electrical tape to attach them to my chest. Unless you want a tattoo of an old guy’s face on your torso, wait until they cool sufficiently after soldering before proceeding to the adhesion step. I suspect that super gluing the penny to your chest would also work, but please do not do this. Ironically, because the adhesive pads of the TENS electrodes wear away over time, the penny solution is probably “more reusable” than the commercial electrode option.

I put pennies on wood to help them get hot as I solder to them.
I put pennies on wood to help them get hot as I solder to them.


penny electrodes match the minimalist style of this project
penny electrodes match the minimalist style of this project


this ECG was captures using penny electrodes
This ECG was captured using penny electrodes. It’s pretty darn good!


Notes on filtering: Why didn’t I just use a hardware low-pass filter?

  1. It would have required extra components, which goes against the theme of this project
  2. It would require specific value components, which is also undesirable for a junkbox project
  3. I’m partial to the Chebyshev filter, but getting an extremely sharp roll-off a few Hz shy of 50Hz would take multiple poles (of closely matched passive components) and not be as trivial as it sounds.

Notes on software: This a really cool use of Python! I lean on some of my favorite packages numpy, scipy, matplotlib, pyqrgraph, and PyQt4. I’ve recently made posts describing how to perform real-time data graphing in Python using these libraries, so I won’t go into that here. If you’re interested, check out my real-time audio monitor, notes on using PlotWidget, and notes on using MatPlotLib widget. I tried using PyInstaller to package this project into a single .EXE for all my windows readers who might want to recreate this project, but the resulting EXE was over 160MB! That’s crazy! It makes sense considering packagers like PyInstaller and Py2EXE work by building your entire python interpreter and all imported libraries. With all those fun libraries I listed above, it’s no wonder it came out so huge. It may be convenient for local quick-fixes, but not a good way to distribute code over the internet. To use this software, just run it in Python. It was tested to work with out-of-the-box WinPython-64bit- (not the Qt5 version), so if you want to run it yourself start there.

Notes on safety. How safe is this project? I’m conflicted on this subject. I want to be as conservative as I can (leaning on the side of caution), but I also want to be as realistic as possible. I’m going to play it safe and say “this may not be safe, so don’t build or use it”. As an exercise, let’s consider the pros and cons:

  • PROS:
    • It’s powered from a 9V battery which is safer than a bench power supply (but see the matching con).
    • The only connections to your body are:
      • leg – ground. you ground yourself all the time. using a wrist grounding strap is the same thing.
      • chest 1 – extremely high impedance. You’re attaching your chest to the high impedance input of an op-amp (which I feel fine with), and also to a floating battery through a 10MOhm resistor (which also I feel fine with)
      • chest 2 – raises an eyebrow. In addition to a high impedance input, you’re connected to an op-amp through a 100k resistor. Even if the op-amp were putting out a full 4.5V, that’s 0.045mA (which doesn’t concern me a whole lot).
    • I don’t know where to stick this, but I wonder what type of voltages / currents TENS actually provide.
    • It’s powered from a 9V battery. So are many stun guns.
    • If the op-amp oscillates, oscillations may enter your body. Personally I feel this may be the most concerning issue.
    • Small currents can kill. I found a curiously colored website that describes this. It seems like the most dangerous potential effect is induction of cardiac fibrillation, which can occur around 100mA.

Improving safety through optical isolation: The safety of this device may be improved (albeit with increased complexity) through the implementation of opto-isolators. I may consider a follow-up post demonstrating how I do this. Unlike digital signals which I’ve optically isolated before, I’ve never personally isolated analog signals. Although I’m sure there are fully analog means to do this, I suspect I’d accomplish it by turning it into a digital signal (with a voltage-to-frequency converter), pulsing the output across the optoisolator, and turning it back into voltage with a frequency-to-voltage converter or perhaps even a passive low-pass filter. Analog Devices has a good write-up about optical isolation techniques.

Do you have comments regarding the safety of this device? Write your thoughts concisely and send them to me in an email! I’d be happy to share your knowledge with everyone by posting it here.

Did you build this or a device similar to it? Send me some pictures! I’ll post them here.

Source code and project files:

LEGAL: This website is for educational purposes only. Do not build or use any electrical devices shown. Attaching non-compliant electronic devices to your body may be dangerous. Consult a physician regarding proper usage of medical equipment.


Realtime Audio Visualization in Python

Python’s “batteries included” nature makes it easy to interact with just about anything… except speakers and a microphone! As of this moment, there still are not standard libraries which which allow cross-platform interfacing with audio devices. There are some pretty convenient third-party modules, but I hope in the future a standard solution will be distributed with python. I appreciate the differences of Linux architectures such as ALSA and OSS, but toss in Windows and MacOS in the mix and it gets to be a huge mess. For Linux, would I even need anything fancy? I can run “cat file.wav > /dev/dsp” from a command prompt to play audio. There are some standard libraries for operating system specific sound (i.e., winsound), but I want something more versatile. The official audio wiki page on the subject lists a small collection of third-party platform-independent libraries. After excluding those which don’t support microphone access (the ultimate goal of all my poking around in this subject), I dove a little deeper into sounddevice and PyAudio. Both of these I installed with pip (i.e., pip install pyaudio)

For a more modern, cleaner, and more complete GUI-based viewer of realtime audio data (and the FFT frequency data), check out my Python Real-time Audio Frequency Monitor project.

I really like the structure and documentation of sounddevice, but I decided to keep developing with PyAudio for now. Sounddevice seemed to take more system resources than PyAudio (in my limited test conditions: Windows 10 with very fast and modern hardware, Python 3), and would audibly “glitch” music as it was being played every time it attached or detached from the microphone stream. I tried streaming, but after about an hour I couldn’t get clean live access to the microphone without glitching audio playback. Furthermore, every few times I ran this script it crashed my python kernel! I very rarely see this happening. iPython complained: “It seems the kernel died unexpectedly. Use ‘Restart kernel’ to continue using this console” and I eventually moved back to PyAudio. For a less “realtime” application, sounddevice might be a great solution. Here’s the minimal case sounddevice script I tested with (that crashed sometimes). If you have a better one to do live high-speed audio capture, let me know!

import sounddevice #pip install sounddevice

for i in range(30): #30 updates in 1 second
    rec = sounddevice.rec(44100/30)

Here’s a simple demo to show how I get realtime microphone audio into numpy arrays using PyAudio. This isn’t really that special. It’s a good starting point though. Note that rather than have the user define a microphone source in the python script (I had a fancy menu system handling this for a while), I allow PyAudio to just look at the operating system’s default input device. This seems like a realistic expectation, and saves time as long as you don’t expect your user to be recording from two different devices at the same time. This script gets some audio from the microphone and shows the values in the console (ten times).

import pyaudio
import numpy as np

CHUNK = 4096 # number of data points to read at a time
RATE = 44100 # time resolution of the recording device (Hz)

p=pyaudio.PyAudio() # start the PyAudio class,channels=1,rate=RATE,input=True,
              frames_per_buffer=CHUNK) #uses default input device

# create a numpy array holding a single read of audio data
for i in range(10): #to it a few times just to see
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)

# close the stream gracefully


I tried to push the limit a little bit and see how much useful data I could get from this console window. It turns out that it’s pretty responsive! Here’s a slight modification of the code, made to turn the console window into an impromptu VU meter.

import pyaudio
import numpy as np

CHUNK = 2**11
RATE = 44100


for i in range(int(10*44100/1024)): #go for a few seconds
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    print("%04d %05d %s"%(i,peak,bars))


The results are pretty good! The advantage here is that no libraries are required except PyAudio. For people interested in doing simple math (peak detection, frequency detection, etc.) this is a perfect starting point. Here’s a quick cellphone video:

I’ve made realtime audio visualization (realtime FFT) scripts with Python before, but 80% of that code was creating a GUI. I want to see data in real time while I’m developing this code, but I really don’t want to mess with GUI programming. I then had a crazy idea. Everyone has a web browser, which is a pretty good GUI… with a Python script to analyze audio and save graphs (a lot of them, quickly) and some JavaScript running in a browser to keep refreshing those graphs, I could get an idea of what the audio stream is doing in something kind of like real time. It was intended to be a hack, but I never expected it to work so well! Check this out…

Here’s the python script to listen to the microphone and generate graphs:

import pyaudio
import numpy as np
import pylab
import time

RATE = 44100
CHUNK = int(RATE/20) # RATE / number of updates per second

def soundplot(stream):
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    print("took %.02f ms"%((time.time()-t1)*1000))

if __name__=="__main__":
    for i in range(int(20*RATE/CHUNK)): #do this for 10 seconds

Here’s the HTML file with JavaScript to keep reloading the image… 

<script language="javascript">
function RefreshImage(){
document.pic0.src="03.png?a=" + String(Math.random()*99999999);
<body onload="RefreshImage()">
<img name="pic0" src="03.png">

Here’s the result! I couldn’t believe my eyes. It’s not elegant, but it’s kind of functional!

Why stop there? I went ahead and wrote a microphone listening and processing class which makes this stuff easier. My ultimate goal hasn’t been revealed yet, but I’m sure it’ll be clear in a few weeks. Let’s just say there’s a lot of use in me visualizing streams of continuous data. Anyway, this class is the truly terrible attempt at a word pun by merging the words “SWH”, “ear”, and “Hear”, into the official title “SWHear” which seems to be unique on Google. This class is minimal case, but can be easily modified to implement threaded recording (which won’t cause the rest of the functions to hang) as well as mathematical manipulation of data, such as FFT. With the same HTML file as used above, here’s the new python script and some video of the output:

import pyaudio
import time
import pylab
import numpy as np

class SWHear(object):
    The SWHear class is made to provide access to continuously recorded
    (and mathematically processed) microphone data.

    def __init__(self,device=None,startStreaming=True):
        """fire up the SWHear class."""
        print(" -- initializing SWHear")

        self.chunk = 4096 # number of data points to read at a time
        self.rate = 44100 # time resolution of the recording device (Hz)

        # for tape recording (continuous "tape" of recent audio)
        self.tapeLength=2 #seconds

        self.p=pyaudio.PyAudio() # start the PyAudio class
        if startStreaming:

    # pure access to microphone and stream operations
    # keep math, plotting, FFT, etc out of here.

    def stream_read(self):
        """return values for a single chunk"""
        data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
        return data

    def stream_start(self):
        """connect to the audio device and start a stream"""
        print(" -- stream started"),channels=1,

    def stream_stop(self):
        """close the stream but keep the PyAudio instance alive."""
        if 'stream' in locals():
        print(" -- stream CLOSED")

    def close(self):
        """gently detach from things."""

    # tape is like a circular magnetic ribbon of tape that's continously
    # recorded and recorded over in a loop. self.tape contains this data.
    # the newest data is always at the end. Don't modify data on the type,
    # but rather do math on it (like FFT) as you read from it.

    def tape_add(self):
        """add a single chunk to the tape."""

    def tape_flush(self):
        """completely fill tape with new data."""
        print(" -- flushing %d s tape with %dx%.2f ms reads"%\
        for i in range(readsInTape):

    def tape_forever(self,plotSec=.25):
            while True:
                if (time.time()-t1)>plotSec:
            print(" ~~ exception (keyboard?)")

    def tape_plot(self,saveAs="03.png"):
        """plot what's in the tape."""
        if saveAs:
            print("plotting saving took %.02f ms"%((time.time()-t1)*1000))
            print() #good for IPython

if __name__=="__main__":

I don’t really intend anyone to actually do this, but it’s a cool alternative to recording a small portion of audio, plotting it in a pop-up matplotlib window, and waiting for the user to close it to record a new fraction. I had a lot more text in here demonstrating real-time FFT, but I’d rather consolidate everything FFT related into a single post. For now, I’m happy pursuing microphone-related python projects with PyAudio.

UPDATE: Displaying a single frequency

Use Numpy’s FFT() and FFTFREQ() to turn the linear data into frequency. Set that target and grab the FFT value corresponding to that frequency. I haven’t tested this to be sure it’s working, but it should at least be close…

import pyaudio
import numpy as np
np.set_printoptions(suppress=True) # don't use scientific notation

CHUNK = 4096 # number of data points to read at a time
RATE = 44100 # time resolution of the recording device (Hz)
TARGET = 2100 # show only this one frequency

p=pyaudio.PyAudio() # start the PyAudio class,channels=1,rate=RATE,input=True,
              frames_per_buffer=CHUNK) #uses default input device

# create a numpy array holding a single read of audio data
for i in range(10): #to it a few times just to see
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    fft = abs(np.fft.fft(data).real)
    fft = fft[:int(len(fft)/2)] # keep only first half
    freq = np.fft.fftfreq(CHUNK,1.0/RATE)
    freq = freq[:int(len(freq)/2)] # keep only first half
    assert freq[-1]>TARGET, "ERROR: increase chunk size"
    val = fft[np.where(freq>TARGET)[0][0]]

# close the stream gracefully

UPDATE: Display peak frequency

If your goal is to determine which frequency is producing the loudest tone, use this function. I also added a few lines to graph the output in case you want to observe how it operates. I recommend testing this script with a tone generator, or a YouTube video containing tones of a range of frequencies like this one.

import pyaudio
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

np.set_printoptions(suppress=True) # don't use scientific notation

CHUNK = 4096 # number of data points to read at a time
RATE = 44100 # time resolution of the recording device (Hz)

p=pyaudio.PyAudio() # start the PyAudio class,channels=1,rate=RATE,input=True,
              frames_per_buffer=CHUNK) #uses default input device

# create a numpy array holding a single read of audio data
for i in range(10): #to it a few times just to see
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    data = data * np.hanning(len(data)) # smooth the FFT by windowing data
    fft = abs(np.fft.fft(data).real)
    fft = fft[:int(len(fft)/2)] # keep only first half
    freq = np.fft.fftfreq(CHUNK,1.0/RATE)
    freq = freq[:int(len(freq)/2)] # keep only first half
    freqPeak = freq[np.where(fft==np.max(fft))[0][0]]+1
    print("peak frequency: %d Hz"%freqPeak)

    # uncomment this if you want to see what the freq vs FFT looks like

# close the stream gracefully


This program shows left vs right audio level:

import pyaudio
import numpy as np

maxValue = 2**16
              input=True, frames_per_buffer=1024)
while True:
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    dataL = data[0::2]
    dataR = data[1::2]
    peakL = np.abs(np.max(dataL)-np.min(dataL))/maxValue
    peakR = np.abs(np.max(dataR)-np.min(dataR))/maxValue
    print("L:%00.02f R:%00.02f"%(peakL*100, peakR*100))


L:47.26 R:45.17
L:47.55 R:45.63
L:49.44 R:45.98
L:45.27 R:49.80
L:44.39 R:45.75
L:47.50 R:46.96
L:41.49 R:42.64
L:42.95 R:41.39
L:49.56 R:49.62
L:48.29 R:48.80
L:45.03 R:47.62
L:47.99 R:49.35
L:41.58 R:49.21

Or with a tweak…

import pyaudio
import numpy as np

maxValue = 2**16
bars = 35
              input=True, frames_per_buffer=1024)
while True:
    data = np.fromstring(,dtype=np.int16)
    dataL = data[0::2]
    dataR = data[1::2]
    peakL = np.abs(np.max(dataL)-np.min(dataL))/maxValue
    peakR = np.abs(np.max(dataR)-np.min(dataR))/maxValue
    lString = "#"*int(peakL*bars)+"-"*int(bars-peakL*bars)
    rString = "#"*int(peakR*bars)+"-"*int(bars-peakR*bars)
    print("L=[%s]\tR=[%s]"%(lString, rString))

graphical output:


Simple DIY ECG + Pulse Oximeter (version 2)

UPDATE: An improved ECG design was posted in August, 2016.
Check out:

Of the hundreds of projects I’ve shared over the years, none has attracted more attention than my DIY ECG machine on the cheap posted almost 4 years ago. This weekend I re-visited the project and made something I’m excited to share!  The original project was immensely popular, my first featured article on Hack-A-Day, and today “ECG” still represents the second most searched term by people who land on my site. My gmail account also has had 194 incoming emails from people asking details about the project. A lot of it was by frustrated students trying to recreate the project running into trouble because it was somewhat poorly documented. Clearly, it’s a project that a wide range of people are interested in, and I’m happy to revisit it bringing new knowledge and insight to the project. I will do my best to document it thoroughly so anyone can recreate it!

The goal of this project is to collect heartbeat information on a computer with minimal cost and minimal complexity.  I accomplished this with fewer than a dozen components (all of which can be purchased at RadioShack). It serves both as a light-based heartbeat monitor (similar to a pulse oximeter, though it’s not designed to quantitatively measure blood oxygen saturation), and an electrocardiogram (ECG) to visualize electrical activity generated by heart while it contracts. Let’s jump right to the good part – this is what comes out of the machine:

That’s my actual heartbeat. Cool, right? Before I go into how the circuit works, let’s touch on how we measure heartbeat with ECG vs. light (like a pulse oximeter).  To form a heartbeat, the pacemaker region of the heart (called the SA node, which is near the upper right of the heart) begins to fire and the atria (the two top chambers of the heart) contract. The SA node generates a little electrical shock which stimulated a synchronized contraction. This is exactly what defibrillators do when a heart has stopped beating. When a heart attack is occurring and a patient is undergoing ventricular fibrillation, it means that heart muscle cells are contracting randomly and not in unison, so the heart quivers instead of pumping as an organ. Defibrillators synchronize the heart beat with a sudden rush of current over the heart to reset all of the cells to begin firing at the same time (thanks Ron for requesting a more technical description).  If a current is run over the muscle, the cells (cardiomyocytes) all contract at the same time, and blood moves. The AV node (closer to the center of the heart) in combination with a slow conducting pathway (called the bundle of His) control contraction of the ventricles (the really large chambers at the bottom of the heart), which produce the really large spikes we see on an ECG.  To measure ECG, optimally we’d place electrodes on the surface of the heart. Since that would be painful, we do the best we can by measuring voltage changes (often in the mV range) on the surface of the skin. If we amplify it enough, we can visualize it. Depending on where the pads are placed, we can see different regions of the heart contract by their unique electrophysiological signature. ECG requires sticky pads on your chest and is extremely sensitive to small fluctuations in voltage. Alternatively, a pulse oximeter measures blood oxygenation and can monitor heartbeat by clipping onto a finger tip. It does this by shining light through your finger and measuring how much light is absorbed. This goes up and down as blood is pumped through your finger. If you look at the relationship between absorbency in the red vs. infrared wavelengths, you can infer the oxygenation state of the blood. I’m not doing that today because I’m mostly interested in detecting heart beats.

For operation as a pulse oximeter-type optical heartbeat detector (a photoplethysmograph which produces a photoplethysmogram), I use a bright red LED to shine light through my finger and be detected by a phototransistor (bottom left of the diagram). I talk about how this works in more detail in a previous post. Basically the phototransistor acts like a variable resistor which conducts different amounts of current depending on how much light it sees. This changes the voltage above it in a way that changes with heartbeats. If this small signal is used as the input, this device acts like a pulse oximeter.

For operation as an electrocardiograph (ECG), I attach the (in) directly to a lead on my chest. One of them is grounded (it doesn’t matter which for this circuit – if they’re switched the ECG just looks upside down), and the other is recording. In my original article, I used pennies with wires soldered to them taped to my chest as leads. Today, I’m using fancier sticky pads which are a little more conductive. In either case, one lead goes in the center of your chest, and the other goes to your left side under your arm pit. I like these sticky pads because they stick to my skin better than pennies taped on with electrical tape. I got 100 Nikomed Nikotabs EKG Electrodes 0315 on eBay for $5.51 with free shipping (score!). Just gator clip to them and you’re good to go!

In both cases, I need to build a device to amplify small signals. This is accomplished with the following circuit. The core of the circuit is an LM324 quad operational amplifier.  These chips are everywhere, and extremely cheap. It looks like Thai Shine sells 10 for $2.86 (with free shipping). That’s about a quarter each. Nice!  A lot of ECG projects use instrumentation amplifiers like the AD620 (which I have used with fantastic results), but these are expensive (about $5.00 each). The main difference is that instrumentation amplifiers amplify the difference between two points (which reduces noise and probably makes for a better ECG machine), but for today an operational amplifier will do a good enough job amplifying a small signal with respect to ground. I get around the noise issue by some simple filtering techniques. Let’s take a look at the circuit.

This project utilizes one of the op-amps as a virtual ground. One complaint of using op-amps in simple projects is that they often need + and – voltages. Yeah, this could be done with two 9V batteries to generate +9V and -9V, but I think it’s easier to use a single power source (+ and GND). A way to get around that is to use one of the op-amps as a current source and feed it half of the power supply voltage (VCC), and use the output as a virtual ground (allowing VCC to be your + and 0V GND to be your -). For a good description of how to do this intelligently, read the single supply op amps web page. The caveat is that your signals should remain around VCC/2, which can be done if it is decoupled by feeding it through a series capacitor. The project works at 12V or 5V, but was designed for (and has much better output) at 12V. The remaining 3 op-amps of the LM324 serve three unique functions:

STAGE 1: High gain amplifier. The input signals from either the ECG or pulse oximeter are fed into a chain of 3 opamp stages. The first is a preamplifier. The output is decoupled through a series capacitor to place it near VCC/2, and amplified greatly thanks to the 1.8Mohm negative feedback resistor. Changing this value changes initial gain.

STAGE 2: active low-pass filter. The 10kOhm variable resistor lets you adjust the frequency cutoff. The opamp serves as a unity gain current source / voltage follower that has high input impedance when measuring the output f the low-pass filter and reproduces its voltage with a low impedance output. There’s some more information about active filtering on this page. It’s best to look at the output of this stage and adjust the potentiometer until the 60Hz noise (caused by the AC wiring in the walls) is most reduced while the lower-frequency component of your heartbeat is retained. With the oximeter, virtually no noise gets through. Because the ECG signal is much smaller, this filter has to be less aggressive, and this noise is filtered-out by software (more on this later).

STAGE 3: final amplifier with low-pass filter. It has a gain of ~20 (determined by the ratio of the 1.8kOhm to 100Ohm resistors) and lowpass filtering components are provided by the 22uF capacitor across the negative feedback resistor. If you try to run this circuit at 5V and want more gain (more voltage swing), consider increasing the value of the 1.8kOhm resistor (wit the capacitor removed). Once you have a good gain, add different capacitor values until your signal is left but the noise reduced. For 12V, these values work fine. Let’s see it in action!

Now for the second half – getting it into the computer. The cheapest and easiest way to do this is to simply feed the output into a sound card! A sound card is an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that everybody has and can sample up to 48 thousand samples a second! (overkill for this application) The first thing you should do is add an output potentiometer to allow you to drop the voltage down if it’s too big for the sound card (in the case of the oximeter) but but also allow full-volume in the case of sensitive measurements (like ECG). Then open-up sound editing software (I like GoldWave for Windows or Audacity for Linux, both of which are free) and record the input. You can do filtering (low-pass filter at 40Hz with a sharp cutoff) to further eliminate any noise that may have sneaked through. Re-sample at 1,000 Hz (1kHz) and save the output as a text file and you’re ready to graph it! Check it out.

Here are the results of some actual data recorded and processed with the method shown in the video. let’s look at the pulse oximeter first.

That looks pretty good, certainly enough for heartbeat detection. There’s obvious room for improvement, but as a proof of concept it’s clearly working. Let’s switch gears and look at the ECG. It’s much more challenging because it’s signal is a couple orders of magnitude smaller than the pulse oximeter, so a lot more noise gets through. Filtering it out offers dramatic improvements!

Here’s the code I used to generate the graphs from the text files that GoldWave saves. It requires Python, Matplotlib (pylab), and Numpy. In my case, I’m using 32-bit 2.6 versions of everything.

# DIY Sound Card ECG/Pulse Oximeter
# by Scott Harden (2013)

import pylab
import numpy


data = numpy.array(raw,dtype=float)
data = data-min(data) #make all points positive
data = data/max(data)*100.0 #normalize
times = numpy.array(range(len(data)))/1000.0
pylab.xlabel("Time Elapsed (seconds)")
pylab.ylabel("Amplitude (% max)")
pylab.title("Pulse Oximeter - filtered")

Future directions involve several projects I hope to work on soon. First, it would be cool to miniaturize everything with surface mount technology (SMT) to bring these things down to the size of a postage stamp. Second, improved finger, toe, or ear clips (or even taped-on sensors) over long duration would provide a pretty interesting way to analyze heart rate variability or modulation in response to stress, sleep apnea, etc. Instead of feeding the signal into a computer, one could send it to a micro-controller for processing. I’ve made some darn-good progress making multi-channel cross-platform USB option for getting physiology data into a computer, but have some work still to do. Alternatively, this data could be graphed on a graphical LCD for an all-in-one little device that doesn’t require a computer. Yep, lots of possible projects can use this as a starting point.

Notes about safety: If you’re worried about electrical shock, or unsure of your ability to make a safe device, don’t attempt to build an ECG machine. For an ECG to work, you have to make good electrical contact with your skin near your heart, and some people feel this is potentially dangerous. Actually, some people like to argue about how dangerous it actually is, as seen on Hack-A-Day comments and my previous post comments. Some people have suggested the danger is negligible and pointed-out that it’s similar to inserting ear-bud headphones into your ears. Others have suggested that it’s dangerous and pointed-out that milliamps can kill a person. Others contest that pulses of current are far more dangerous than a continuous applied current. Realists speculate that virtually no current would be delivered by this circuit if it is wired properly. Rational, cautionary people worried about it reduce risk of accidental current by applying bidirectional diodes at the level of the chest leads, which short any current (above 0.7V) similar to that shown here. Electrically-savvy folks would design an optically decoupled solution. Intelligent folks who abstain from arguing on the internet would probably consult the datasheets regarding ECG input protection. In all cases, don’t attach electrical devices to your body unless you are confident in their safety. As a catch-all, I present the ECG circuit for educational purposes only, and state that it may not be safe and should not be replicated  There, will that cover me in court in case someone tapes wires to their chest and plugs them in the wall socket?

LET ME KNOW WHAT YOU THINK! If you make this, I’m especially interested to see how it came out. Take pictures of your projects and send them my way! If you make improvements, or take this project further, I’d be happy to link to it on this page. I hope this page describes the project well enough that anyone can recreate it, regardless of electronics experience. Finally, I hope that people are inspired by the cool things that can be done with surprisingly simple electronics. Get out there, be creative, and go build something cool!


Single Wavelength Pulse Oximeter

UPDATE: Check out the improved circuit here:


I want to create a microcontroller application which will utilize information obtained from a home-brew pulse oximeter. Everybody and their cousin seems to have their own slant how to make DIY pulse detectors, but I might as well share my experience. Traditionally, pulse oximeters calculate blood oxygen saturation by comparing absorbance of blood to different wavelengths of light. In the graph below (from Dildy et al., 1996 that deoxygenated blood (dark line) absorbs light differently than oxygenated blood (thin line), especially at 660nm (red) and 920nm (infrared). Therefore, the ratio of the difference of absorption at 660nm vs 920nm is an indication of blood oxygenation. Fancy (or at least well-designed) pulse oximeters continuously look at the ratio of these two wavelengths. Analog devices has a nice pulse oximeter design using an ADuC7024 microconverter. A more hackerish version was made and described on this non-english forum. A fail-at-the-end page of a simpler project is also shown here, but not well documented IMO.

That’s not how mine works. I only use a single illumination source (~660nm) and watch it change with respect to time. Variability is due to a recombination effect of blood volume changes and blood oxygen saturation changes as blood pulses through my finger. Although it’s not quite as good, it’s a bit simpler, and it definitely works. Embedded-lab has a similar project but the output is only a pulsing LED (not what I want) and a voltage output that only varies by a few mV (not what I want).

Here’s what the device looks like assembled in a breadboard:

I made a sensor by drilling appropriately-sized holes in a clothespin for the emitter (LED) and sensor (phototransistor). I had to bend the metal spring to make it more comfortable to wear. Light pressure is better than firm pressure, not only because it doesn’t hurt as much, but because a firm pinch restricts blood flow considerably.

An obvious next step is microcontroller + LCD (or computer) digitization, but for now all you can do is check it out on my old-school analog oscilloscope. Vertical squares represent 1V (nice!). You can see the pulse provides a solid 2V spike.

Here’s some video of it in action:

Out of principal, I’m holding-back the circuit diagram until I work through it a little more. I don’t want to mislead people by having them re-create ill-conceived ideas on how to create analog amplifiers. I’ll post more as I develop it.


Multichannel USB Analog Sensor with ATMega48

Sometimes it’s tempting to re-invent the wheel to make a device function exactly the way you want. I am re-visiting the field of homemade electrophysiology equipment, and although I’ve already published a home made electocardiograph (ECG), I wish to revisit that project and make it much more elegant, while also planning for a pulse oximeter, an electroencephalograph (EEG), and an electrogastrogram (EGG). This project is divided into 3 major components: the low-noise microvoltage amplifier, a digital analog to digital converter with PC connectivity, and software to display and analyze the traces. My first challenge is to create that middle step, a device to read voltage (from 0-5V) and send this data to a computer.

This project demonstrates a simple solution for the frustrating problem of sending data from a microcontroller to a PC with a USB connection. My solution utilizes a USB FTDI serial-to-usb cable, allowing me to simply put header pins on my device which I can plug into providing the microcontroller-computer link. This avoids the need for soldering surface-mount FTDI chips (which gets expensive if you put one in every project). FTDI cables are inexpensive (about $11 shipped on eBay) and I’ve gotten a lot of mileage out of mine and know I will continue to use it for future projects. If you are interested in MCU/PC communication, consider one of these cables as a rapid development prototyping tool. I’m certainly enjoying mine!

It is important to me that my design is minimalistic, inexpensive, and functions natively on Linux and Windows without installing special driver-related software, and can be visualized in real-time using native Python libraries, such that the same code can be executed identically on all operating systems with minimal computer-side configuration. I’d say I succeeded in this effort, and while the project could use some small touches to polish it up, it’s already solid and proven in its usefulness and functionality.

This is my final device. It’s reading voltage on a single pin, sending this data to a computer through a USB connection, and custom software (written entirely in Python, designed to be a cross-platform solution) displays the signal in real time. Although it’s capable of recording and displaying 5 channels at the same time, it’s demonstrated displaying only one. Let’s check-out a video of it in action:

This 5-channel realtime USB analog sensor, coupled with custom cross-platform open-source software, will serve as the foundation for a slew of electrophysiological experiments, but can also be easily expanded to serve as an inexpensive multichannel digital oscilloscope. While more advanced solutions exist, this has the advantage of being minimally complex (consisting of a single microchip), inexpensive, and easy to build.

 To the right is my working environment during the development of this project. You can see electronics, my computer, microchips, and coffee, but an intriguingly odd array of immunological posters in the background. I spent a couple weeks camping-out in a molecular biology laboratory here at UF and got a lot of work done, part of which involved diving into electronics again. At the time this photo was taken, I hadn’t worked much at my home workstation. It’s a cool picture, so I’m holding onto it.

Below is a simplified description of the circuit schematic that is employed in this project. Note that there are 6 ADC (analog to digital converter) inputs on the ATMega48 IC, but for whatever reason I ended-up only hard-coding 5 into the software. Eventually I’ll go back and re-declare this project a 6-channel sensor, but since I don’t have six things to measure at the moment I’m fine keeping it the way it is. RST, SCK, MISO, and MOSI are used to program the microcontroller and do not need to be connected to anything for operation. The max232 was initially used as a level converter to allow the micro-controller to communicate with a PC via the serial port. However, shortly after this project was devised an upgrade was used to allow it to connect via USB. Continue reading for details…

Below you can see the circuit breadboarded. The potentiometer (small blue box) simulated an analog input signal.

The lower board is my AVR programmer, and is connected to RST, SCK, MISO, MOSI, and GND to allow me to write code on my laptop and program the board. It’s a AVR programmer which can be yours for $11 shipped! I’m not affiliated with their company, but I love that little board. It’s a clone of the AVR ISP MK-II.

As you can see, the USB AVR programmer I’m using is supported in Linux. I did all of my development in Ubuntu Linux, writing AVR-GCC (C) code in my favorite Linux code editor Geany, then loaded the code onto the chip with AVRDude.

I found a simple way to add USB functionality in a standard, reproducible way that works without requiring the soldering of a SMT FTDI chip, and avoids custom libraries like V-USB which don’t easily have drivers that are supported by major operating systems (Windows) without special software. I understand that the simplest long-term and commercially-logical solution would be to use that SMT chip, but I didn’t feel like dealing with it. Instead, I added header pins which allow me to snap-on a pre-made FTDI USB cable. They’re a bit expensive ($12 on ebay) but all I need is 1 and I can use it in all my projects since it’s a sinch to connect and disconnect. Beside, it supplies power to the target board! It’s supported in Linux and in Windows with established drivers that are shipped with the operating system. It’s a bit of a shortcut, but I like this solution. It also eliminates the need for the max232 chip, since it can sense the voltages outputted by the microcontroller directly.

The system works by individually reading the 10-bit ADC pins on the microcontroller (providing values from 0-1024 to represent voltage from 0-5V or 0-1.1V depending on how the code is written), converting these values to text, and sending them as a string via the serial protocol. The FTDI cable reads these values and transmits them to the PC through a USB connection, which looks like “COM5” on my Windows computer. Values can be seen in any serial terminal program (i.e., hyperterminal), or accessed through Python with the PySerial module.

As you can see, I’m getting quite good at home-brewn PCBs. While it would be fantastic to design a board and have it made professionally, this is expensive and takes some time. In my case, I only have a few hours here or there to work on projects. If I have time to design a board, I want it made immediately! I can make this start to finish in about an hour. I use a classic toner transfer method with ferric chloride, and a dremel drill press to create the holes. I haven’t attacked single-layer SMT designs yet, but I can see its convenience, and look forward to giving it a shot before too long.

Here’s the final board ready for digitally reporting analog voltages. You can see 3 small headers on the far left and 2 at the top of the chip. These are for RST, SCK, MISO, MOSI, and GND for programming the chip. Once it’s programmed, it doesn’t need to be programmed again. Although I wrote the code for an ATMega48, it works fine on a pin-compatible ATMega8 which is pictured here. The connector at the top is that FTDI USB cable, and it supplies power and USB serial connectivity to the board.

If you look closely, you can see that modified code has been loaded on this board with a Linux laptop. This thing is an exciting little board, because it has so many possibilities. It could read voltages of a single channel in extremely high speed and send that data continuously, or it could read from many channels and send it at any rate, or even cooler would be to add some bidirectional serial communication capabilities to allow the computer to tell the microcontroller which channels to read and how often to report the values back. There is a lot of potential for this little design, and I’m glad I have it working.

Unfortunately I lost the schematics to this device because I formatted the computer that had the Eagle files on it. It should be simple and intuitive enough to be able to design again. The code for the microcontroller and code for the real-time visualization software will be posted below shortly. Below are some videos of this board in use in one form or another:

Here is the code that is loaded onto the microcontroller:

#define F_CPU 8000000UL
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>

void readADC(char adcn){
		//ADMUX = 0b0100000+adcn; // AVCC ref on ADCn
		ADMUX = 0b1100000+adcn; // AVCC ref on ADCn
		ADCSRA |= (1<<ADSC); // reset value
        while (ADCSRA & (1<<ADSC)) {}; // wait for measurement

int main (void){
    ADCSRA = 0b10000111; //ADC Enable, Manual Trigger, Prescaler
    ADCSRB = 0;

    int adcs[8]={0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0};

    char i=0;
		for (i=0;i<8;i++){readADC(i);adcs[i]=ADC>>6;}
		for (i=0;i<5;i++){sendNum(adcs[i]);send(44);}
		send(10);// LINE BREAK
		send(13); //return

void sendNum(unsigned int num){
	char theIntAsString[7];
	int i;
	sprintf(theIntAsString, "%u", num);
	for (i=0; i < strlen(theIntAsString); i++){

void send (unsigned char c){
	while((UCSR0A & (1<<UDRE0)) == 0) {}
	UDR0 = c;

void init_usart () {
	int BAUD_PRESCALE = 12;
	UBRR0L = BAUD_PRESCALE; // Load lower 8-bits
	UBRR0H = (BAUD_PRESCALE >> 8); // Load upper 8-bits
	UCSR0A = 0;
	UCSR0B = (1<<RXEN0)|(1<<TXEN0); //rx and tx
	UCSR0C = (1<<UCSZ01) | (1<<UCSZ00); //We want 8 data bits

Here is the code that runs on the computer, allowing reading and real-time graphing of the serial data. It’s written in Python and has been tested in both Linux and Windows. It requires *NO* non-standard python libraries, making it very easy to distribute. Graphs are drawn (somewhat inefficiently) using lines in TK. Subsequent development went into improving the visualization, and drastic improvements have been made since this code was written, and updated code will be shared shortly. This is functional, so it’s worth sharing.

import Tkinter, random, time
import socket, sys, serial

class App:

	def white(self):

		self.c.create_rectangle(0, 0, 800, 512, fill="black")
		for y in range(0,512,50):
			self.c.create_line(0, y, 800, y, fill="#333333",dash=(4, 4))
			self.c.create_text(5, y-10, fill="#999999", text=str(y*2), anchor="w")
		for x in range(100,800,100):
			self.c.create_line(x, 0, x, 512, fill="#333333",dash=(4, 4))
			self.c.create_text(x+3, 500-10, fill="#999999", text=str(x/100)+"s", anchor="w")

		self.lineRedraw=self.c.create_line(0, 800, 0, 0, fill="red")

		self.lines1text=self.c.create_text(800-3, 10, fill="#00FF00", text=str("TEST"), anchor="e")
		for x in range(800):
			self.lines.append(self.c.create_line(x, 0, x, 0, fill="#00FF00"))

	def addPoint(self,val):[self.xpos]=val
		if self.xpos%10==0:
		if self.xpos>0:self.c.coords(self.lines[self.xpos],(self.xpos-1,self.lastpos,self.xpos,val))
		if self.xpos<800:self.c.coords(self.lineRedraw,(self.xpos+1,0,self.xpos+1,800))
		if self.xpos==800:
			print "FPS:",self.totalPoints/(time.time()-self.timeStart)

	def __init__(self, t):
		self.c = Tkinter.Canvas(t, width=800, height=512)

t = Tkinter.Tk()
a = App(t)

#ser = serial.Serial('COM1', 19200, timeout=1)
ser = serial.Serial('/dev/ttyUSB0', 38400, timeout=1)
sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_BROADCAST, 1)

while True:
	while True: #try to get a reading
		#print "LISTENING"
		#print raw
		#print raw
			print "FAIL"

If you re-create this device of a portion of it, let me know! I’d love to share it on my website. Good luck!