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Epoch Timestamp Hashing

I was recently presented with the need to rename a folder of images based on a timestamp. This, I can keep saving new files in that folder with overlapping filenames (i.e., 01.jpg, 02.jpg, 03.jpg, etc.), and every time I run this script all images are prepended with a timestamp. I still want the files to be sorted alphabetically, which is why an alphabetical timestamp (rather than a random hash) is preferred.

  • At first I considered a long date such as 2014-04-19-01.jpg, but that adds so much text!
    …also, it doesn’t include time of day.
  • If I include time of day, it becomes 2014-04-19-09-16-23-01.jpg
  • If I eliminate dashes to shorten it, it becomes hard to read, but might work 140419091623-01.jpg
  • If I use Unix Epoch time, it becomes 1397912944-01.jpg

The result I came up with uses base conversion and a string table of numbers and letters (in alphabetical order) to create a second-respecting timestamp hash using an arbitrary number of characters. For simplicity, I used 36 characters: 0-9, and a-z. I then wrote two functions to perform arbitrary base conversion, pulling characters from the hash. Although I could have nearly doubled my available characters by including the full ASCII table, respecting capitalization, I decided to keep it simple. The scheme goes like this:

  • Determine the date / time: 19-Apr-2014 13:08:55
  • Create an integer of Unix Epoch time (seconds past Jan 1, 1970):  1397912935
  • Do a base conversion from a character list: n4a4iv
  • My file name now becomes n4a4iv-01.jpg – I can accept this!
    and when I sort the folder alphabetically, they’re in order by the timestamp

I can now represent any modern time, down to the second, with 6 characters. Here’s some example output:

19-Apr-2014 13:08:55 <-> 1397912935 <-> n4a4iv
19-Apr-2014 13:08:56 <-> 1397912936 <-> n4a4iw
19-Apr-2014 13:08:57 <-> 1397912937 <-> n4a4ix
19-Apr-2014 13:08:58 <-> 1397912938 <-> n4a4iy
19-Apr-2014 13:08:59 <-> 1397912939 <-> n4a4iz
19-Apr-2014 13:09:00 <-> 1397912940 <-> n4a4j0
19-Apr-2014 13:09:01 <-> 1397912941 <-> n4a4j1
19-Apr-2014 13:09:02 <-> 1397912942 <-> n4a4j2
19-Apr-2014 13:09:03 <-> 1397912943 <-> n4a4j3
19-Apr-2014 13:09:04 <-> 1397912944 <-> n4a4j4

Interestingly, if I change my hash characters away from the list of 36 alphanumerics and replace it with just 0 and 1, I can encode/decode the date in binary:

19-Apr-2014 13:27:28 <-> 1397914048 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000000
19-Apr-2014 13:27:29 <-> 1397914049 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000001
19-Apr-2014 13:27:30 <-> 1397914050 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000010
19-Apr-2014 13:27:31 <-> 1397914051 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000011
19-Apr-2014 13:27:32 <-> 1397914052 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000100
19-Apr-2014 13:27:33 <-> 1397914053 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000101
19-Apr-2014 13:27:34 <-> 1397914054 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000110
19-Apr-2014 13:27:35 <-> 1397914055 <-> 1010011010100100111100111000111
19-Apr-2014 13:27:36 <-> 1397914056 <-> 1010011010100100111100111001000
19-Apr-2014 13:27:37 <-> 1397914057 <-> 1010011010100100111100111001001

Here’s the code to generate / decode Unix epoch timestamps in Python:

#hashchars='01' #for binary

def epochToHash(n):
  while n>0:
    hash = hashchars[int(n % len(hashchars))] + hash
    n = int(n / len(hashchars))
  return hash

def epochFromHash(s):
  for pos in range(len(s)):
  return epoch

import time
for i in range(10):
  print(time.strftime("%d-%b-%Y %H:%M:%S", time.gmtime(t)), 
              "<->", t,"<->",epochToHash(t))

About the author

Scott W Harden

Scott Harden has had a lifelong passion for computer programming and electrical engineering, and recently has become interested in its relationship with biomolecular sciences. He has run a personal website since he was 15, which has changed names from HardenTechnologies.com, to KnightHacker.com, to ScottIsHot.com, to its current SWHarden.com. Scott has been in college for 10 years, with 3 more years to go. He has an AA in Biology (Valencia College), BS in Cell Biology (Union University), MS in Molecular Biology and Microbiology (University of Central Florida), and is currently in a combined DMD (doctor of dental medicine) / PhD (neuroscience) program through the collaboration of the College of Dentistry and College of Medicine (Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Science, IDP) at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. In his spare time Scott builds small electrical devices (with an emphasis on radio frequency) and enjoys writing cross-platform open-source software.

Permanent link to this article: http://www.SWHarden.com/blog/2014-04-19-epoch-timestamp-hashing/


  1. Eldon

    I had the same problem, I now use “YYYYMMDDHHMM.???” for most things, if necessary I tack on “seconds” or an Alpha.

    For PCB projects I always include a label of “YYYY-MMDD-HHMM” somewhere on the back, this approach has saved me several times.

    I am glad to see an NEW post from you !
    I hope all is well.


    Eldon – WA0UWH

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