**Would I rather design circuits or software?** I’m a software guy (likely due to my lack of working knowledge of circuits) so I’d rather record noisy signals and write software to eliminate the noise, rather than assembling circuits to eliminate the noise for me. In the case of my DIY ECG machine, I’d say I’ve done a great job of eliminating noise via the software route. Most DIY ECG circuits on the net use multiple op-amps and diodes to do this, and have a hardware-based band-pass filter to eliminate frequencies around 60 Hz. Instead of all that fancy stuff, I made a super-crude circuit (a single op-amp and two resisters) to record my ECG. It was INCREDIBLY noisy! So, how did I clean it up with software? I’ll tell you.

**The first step in removing electrical noise is classifying it.** Most of the noise in my signal were overlapping sine waves caused by my electrodes picking up signals not from my body. This was determined by simply close-up observation of the original trace. Since this sine-type interference is consistant, power-spectral analysis could be applied to determine the frequencies of the noise so I could block them out. I used the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT) on the values from my wave file to generate a plot of noise level with respect to frequency (noise was seen as sharp peaks). I manually blocked-out certain regions of the FFT trace that I thought were noise-related (colored bands, all the values of which were set to zero) – a process known as band-pass filtering (something which is possible to do electronically with a more complicated circuit) – then performed an inverse FFT algorithm on the trace. The result was a trace with greatly reduced noise and after a moving window smoothing algorithm was applied the signal was better than ever. Below are some figures. Note that I recorded the raw WAV file with “sound recorder” (not GoldWave) and did all of the processing (including band-pass filtering) within Python.

**What an awesome chart!** On top we have the power spectral analysis with band-stop filters applied at the colored regions. Below is the trace of the original WAV file (light gray), the inverse-FFT-filtered trace (dark gray), and the smoothed inverse-FFT-filtered trace (black) – the final ECG signal I intend to use.

**This is a magnified view of a few heartbeats** after the inverse FFT filtering (multi-band-blocking) process was applied. Not bad! Not bad at all…

**And, of course, the updated code:**

import wave, struct, numpy, pylab, scipy fname='./success3.wav' def readwave(wavfilename): """load raw data directly from a WAV file.""" global rate w=wave.open(wavfilename,'rb') (nchannel, width, rate, length, comptype, compname) = w.getparams() print "[%s] %d HZ (%0.2fsec)" %(wavfilename, rate, length/float(rate)) frames = w.readframes(length) return numpy.array(struct.unpack("%sh" %length*nchannel,frames)) def shrink(data,deg=100): """condense a linear data array by a multiple of [deg].""" global rate small=[] print "starting with", len(data) for i in range(len(data)/deg): small.append(numpy.average(data[i*deg:(i+1)*deg])) print "ending with", len(small) rate = rate/deg #return small[40000:50000] return small def normalize(data): """make all data fit between -.5 and +.5""" data=data-numpy.average(data) big=float(max(data)) sml=float(min(data)) data=data/abs(big-sml) data=data+float(abs(min(data)))-.47 return data def smooth(data,deg=20,expand=False): """moving window average (deg = window size).""" for i in range(len(data)-deg): if i==0: cur,smooth=sum(data[0:deg]),[] smooth.append(cur/deg) cur=cur-data[i]+data[i+deg] if expand: for i in range(deg): smooth.append(smooth[-1]) return smooth def smoothListGaussian(list,degree=10,expand=False): window=degree*2-1 weight=numpy.array([1.0]*window) weightGauss=[] for i in range(window): i=i-degree+1 frac=i/float(window) gauss=1/(numpy.exp((4*(frac))**2)) weightGauss.append(gauss) weight=numpy.array(weightGauss)*weight smoothed=[0.0]*(len(list)-window) for i in range(len(smoothed)): smoothed[i]=sum(numpy.array(list[i:i+window])*weight)/sum(weight) if expand: for i in range((degree*2)-1): smoothed.append(smoothed[-1]) return smoothed def goodSmooth(data): #data=smooth(fix,20,True) data=smooth(fix,100,True) #data=smooth(fix,20,True) return data def makeabs(data): """center linear data to its average value.""" for i in range(len(data)): data[i]=abs(data[i]) return data def invert(data): """obviously.""" for i in range(len(data)): data[i]=-data[i] return data def loadwav(fname): """a do-everything function to get usable, smoothed data from a WAV.""" wav=readwave(fname) wav=shrink(wav) wav=invert(wav) wav=smooth(wav) wav=smooth(wav,10) wav=normalize(wav) Xs=getXs(wav) return Xs,wav def getXs(datalen): """calculate time positions based on WAV frequency resolution.""" Xs=[] for i in range(len(datalen)): Xs.append(i*(1/float(rate))) print len(datalen), len(Xs) return Xs def integrate(data): """integrate the function with respect to its order.""" inte=[] for i in range(len(data)-1): inte.append(abs(data[i]-data[i+1])) inte.append(inte[-1]) return inte def getPoints(Xs,data,res=10): """return X,Y coordinates of R peaks and calculate R-R based heartrate.""" pXs,pYs,pHRs=[],[],[] for i in range(res,len(data)-res): if data[i]>data[i-res]+.1 and data[i]>data[i+res]+.1: if data[i]>data[i-1] and data[i]>data[i+1]: pXs.append(Xs[i]) pYs.append(data[i]) if len(pXs)>1: pHRs.append((1.0/(pXs[-1]-pXs[-2]))*60.0) pHRs.append(pHRs[-1]) return pXs,pYs,pHRs def bandStop(fft,fftx,low,high,show=True): lbl="%d-%d"%(low,high) print "band-stopping:",lbl if show: col=pylab.cm.spectral(low/1200.) pylab.axvspan(low,high,alpha=.4,ec='none',label=lbl,fc=col) #pylab.axvspan(-low,-high,fc='r',alpha=.3) for i in range(len(fft)): if abs(fftx[i])>low and abs(fftx[i])<high : fft[i]=0 return fft def getXs(data): xs=numpy.array(range(len(data))) xs=xs*(1.0/rate) return xs def clip(x,deg=1000): return numpy.array(x[deg:-deg]) pylab.figure(figsize=(12,8)) raw = invert(shrink(readwave(fname),10)) xs = getXs(raw) fftr = numpy.fft.fft(raw) fft = fftr[:] fftx= numpy.fft.fftfreq(len(raw), d=(1.0/(rate))) pylab.subplot(2,1,1) pylab.plot(fftx,abs(fftr),'k') fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,30,123) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,160,184) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,294,303) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,386,423) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,534,539) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,585,610) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,654,660) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,773,778) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,893,900) fft=bandStop(fft,fftx,1100,max(fftx)) pylab.axis([0,1200,0,2*10**6]) pylab.legend() pylab.title("Power Spectral Analysis",fontsize=28) pylab.ylabel("Power",fontsize=20) pylab.xlabel("Frequency (Hz)",fontsize=20) pylab.subplot(2,1,2) pylab.title("Original Trace",fontsize=28) pylab.ylabel("Potential",fontsize=20) pylab.xlabel("Time (sec)",fontsize=20) pylab.plot(clip(xs),clip(raw),color='.8',label='1: raw') fix = scipy.ifft(fft) pylab.plot(clip(xs),clip(fix)+5000,color='.6',label='2: band-stop') pylab.plot(clip(xs),clip(goodSmooth(fix))-5000,'k',label='3: smoothed') pylab.legend() pylab.title("Band-Stop Filtered Trace",fontsize=28) pylab.ylabel("Potential",fontsize=20) pylab.xlabel("Time (sec)",fontsize=20) pylab.subplots_adjust(hspace=.5) pylab.savefig('out.png',dpi=100) pylab.show() print "COMPLETE"